# Setting Up a Haskell Project on NixOS

This entry is part 6 of 6 in the series Setting Up Haskell Development on NixOS Linux from Scratch

Previously, we looked at how to add new packages to our nixpkgs expression tree. Often, the reason we are adding new packages is that we want to use them for Haskell development! This installment will explore starting a new Haskell project.

Again, we’re going to be using some custom nix commands that we set up in previous posts of this series, so if you’re jumping in here, you might want to back up a few installments if you find yourself getting lost.

I’m going to be using the janrain snap tutorial as the basis for this installment, but much of this exploration is getting set up to do the tutorial, so there is not much overlap.

# Set Up Project Files

First, let’s set up the basic project files we’re going to be using for our exploration.

## Basic Snap Setup

Run the following commands to set up a new projectomatic directory and initialize it using cabal init and snap init. For the cabal init call, you can accept all the defaults if you want; most of the files generated with that call will be overwritten by snap init anyway. When asked, you want to choose 2) Executable.

#!bash
mkdir projectomatic
cd projectomatic
cabal init
snap init


If you encounter a snap: command not found message, then you need to install snap into your user environment. If you already have the package, installing it will just make it active for the user environment so you can call snap init. Otherwise, installing will both build it and make it active.

#!bash


The project directory will be initialized with a projectomatic.cabal file, among others. Feel free to modify the values set by default in the cabal file. I’m going to leave the defaults as is for this tutorial.

Sanity Check: In your projectomatic directory, you should now have projectomatic.cabal, Setup.hs, and the directories log, snaplets, src, and static.

## Generate default.nix

Just like we used the cabal2nix utility to automatically generate nix expression for hackage packages, we can also use cabal2nix to generate expressions for our new projectomatic project.

#!bash
cabal2nix projectomatic.cabal --sha256 blah > default.nix


Check out the new default.nix and you’ll see a nice, clean expression for the new projectomatic package. We want to change the sha256 = "blah" to src = ./., but other than that, the expression is similar to the ones we saw previously.

We can’t run it just yet, though. This expression is generated so that it can be integrated into the haskellPackages environment of nixpkgs. Since our project will be distinct from haskellPackages, we need to do some additional customization.

The first issue is with the expression inputs:

#!nix
{ cabal, heist, lens, MonadCatchIOTransformers, mtl, snap, snapCore
, snapLoaderStatic, snapServer, text, time, xmlhtml
}:


This looks just like the previous nix expressions we encountered, so what’s the problem? When we incorporated new nix expressions into the nixpkgs expression tree, expressions for dependent Haskell packages were defined in the same haskellPackages scope. Thus, when Nix needed the input cabal expression in order to put the cabal dependency on the path, it could do it because the cabal expression was in the same scope.

On the other hand, here we are defining a nix expression outside of that scope, so Nix doesn’t know what the cabal dependency means. In fact, if we try to run nix-build for projectomatic, we’ll see this:

#!bash
[dan@nixos:~/Code/projectomatic]$nix-build error: cannot auto-call a function that has an argument without a default value (cabal')  To fix this problem, we need to specify in our default.nix expression where the dependent expressions are defined. We’ll do this by redefining the expression to take a single haskellPackages input argument that has a default value defined as (import <nixpkgs> {}).haskellPackages), which is the scope we want! #!nix { haskellPackages ? (import <nixpkgs> {}).haskellPackages }: let inherit (haskellPackages) cabal heist lens MonadCatchIOTransformers mtl snap snapCore snapLoaderStatic snapServer text teim xmlhtml ; in cabal.mkDerivation (self: {  The term <nixpkgs> instructs Nix to look for expressions beginning with $NIX_PATH/nixpkgs. Since my NIX_PATH has only the prefix that I set in my .bashrc file, the resolved file path is my desired local directory /home/dan/Code/nixpkgs.

#!bash
[dan@nixos:~/Code/projectomatic]$echo$NIX_PATH
/home/dan/Code:nixos-config=/etc/nixos/configuration.nix


# Using nix-shell

Now we have all the files we need for a complete (but minimal) snap default project. A lot of our effort was spent tweaking the new default.nix to work with our new project. Surely there must be some way to check that it’s correct.

## A Quick Reminder about Expressions

Remember the purpose of nix expressions.

1. Define all system inputs to a package
2. Define the build steps for the package

When a nix expression is run, Nix configures something of a private system for building the package. The private system is configured to only have the dependencies of the nix expression. If a required dependency is left out of the expression inputs, the package will fail to build.

## nix-shell Command

The nix-shell command acts as a way to inject a CLI into this private system. Within the nix-shell, the user can build expressions and run commands as if they are being run as part of an expression. Let’s try it out

#!bash
[dan@nixos:~/Code/projectomatic]$nix-shell error: Package ‘projectomatic-0.1’ in ‘/home/dan/Code/projectomatic/default.nix:18’ has an unfree license, refusing to evaluate. You can set { nixpkgs.config.allowUnfree = true; } in configuration.nix to override this. If you use Nix standalone, you can add { allowUnfree = true; } to ~/.nixpkgs/config.nix.  Whoa, what happened here? By default, Nix won’t evaluate expressions that have an unfree license, which, if you accepted all the defaults like I did, is what we have for our project. By following the instructions given in the error, we can allow unfree packages to be built. However, this will allow unfree packages everywhere, and we just want to build this one unfree package. An unmentioned way to enable unfree packages is the NIXPKGS_ALLOW_UNFREE environment variable. We can temporarily enable unfree packages, build the one we want, and then disable it again to return us back to our starting point. I added this to my .bashrc file (along with nix-install and nix-search) to make it easy to drop into an unfree nix-shell. #!bash nix-shell-unfree() { FLAGSAVE=$NIXPKGS_ALLOW_UNFREE;
echo "Opening shell with NIXPKGS_ALLOW_UNFREE=1. Original setting of $FLAGSAVE will restored on exit."; export NIXPKGS_ALLOW_UNFREE=1; nix-shell; echo "Restoring NIXPKGS_ALLOW_UNFREE=$FLAGSAVE ...";
export NIXPKGS_ALLOW_UNFREE=$FLAGSAVE; }  Now our nix-shell-unfree command will put us in a nix shell. #!bash [dan@nixos:~/Code/projectomatic]$ nix-shell-unfree
Opening shell with NIXPKGS_ALLOW_UNFREE=1.  Original setting of 0 will restored on exit

[nix-shell:~/Code/projectomatic]$exit exit Restoring NIXPKGS_ALLOW_UNFREE=0 ...  Try entering a nix-shell-unfree and running nix-build. Did the build work without error? Depending on your dependency versions, maybe it did. For me, I get the following: #!bash Setup: At least the following dependencies are missing: lens >=3.7.6 && <4.2  Looks like I still have some work to do. At first, I started setting up a new local expression for a different lens version, but after getting it set up, I found that snap requires lens 4.2, even though the cabal file written by by snap init requires less than 4.2! I am chalking this up to a bug and manually edited the projectomatic.cabal file to use lens <= 4.2. After that, nix-build works without issue. Note that I also tried keeping the cabal file unmodified and using jailbreak=true, but that had no effect as far as I could tell. # Running the Default Application We have successfully overcome several obstacles in getting the default, (mostly) unmodified snap project template to compile. Now let’s run it. When using nix-build, Nix puts a sym link into your project directory called result that points to the location in the store that holds the build results of the expression. We can use result to get easy access to our new binary. TADA! We are now ready to actually follow the janrain tutorial. This installment is long enough already, so I’ll save exploring the tutorial itself for next time. # Adding Nix Expressions for New Packages This entry is part 5 of 6 in the series Setting Up Haskell Development on NixOS Linux from Scratch The nixpkgs repository does a good job of including many Haskell packages already. Indeed, it almost seems like the lazy, functional Nix-based NixOS might have a soft spot for Haskell :). Much of hackage is available with just a few keystrokes, relieving cabal of its package-managing tasks. However, nixpkgs does not include all of hackage, and it’s actually not hard run into missing packages during development. For instance, not long ago I wanted to build a toy snap app as a first project in NixOS. While snap is available, snap-web-routes is not. We’ll explore adding hackage packages to your local nixpkgs repo (and submitting them upstream) in this installment. In fact, we’re going to add snap-web-routes to nixpkgs. # Preparing git If you followed my earlier installment in this series, you should have a local clone of the nixpkgs repository. Since we plan to submit a pull request with our changes, we need to take a few steps to prepare git. If you are pretty seasoned with git, you can probably skip this section. ## Add and Sync Upstream We need to add the primary NixOS/nixpkgs github repository to our remotes. This will enable us to pull in updates to the nix expressions easily. #!bash git remote add upstream https://github.com/NixOS/nixpkgs.git git fetch upstream git merge upstream/master  The last two lines are what we’ll execute whenever we want to pull in updates for our custom nix-search and nix-install calls. ## Make a New Branch Next we need to create a new branch for adding our new expression. This will isolate our updates when we submit a pull request; otherwise, any additional, unrelated updates we make to our local repository and push to origin will get added to the pull request! I learned this the hard way. Make a new branch and check it out using checkout and -b. #!bash git checkout -b add-haskell-snap-web-routes  # Adding Expressions ## Nixpkgs Expression Hierarchy The nix expressions for all the available package are included in our local nixpkgs repository. Each nix expression is specified using a path. If no file name is provided in the path, then the file name of default.nix is assumed. For example, nixpkgs/ has a default.nix, which has the following line #!nix import ./pkgs/top-level-all-packages.nix  The default.nix expression imports all the expressions listed in pkgs/top-level/all-packages.nix. This expression, in turn, imports expressions from other locations in the nixpkgs repository. The one we are interested in is pkgs/top-level/haskell-packages.nix. Here’s just one excerpt from the haskell-packages.nix file. #!nix snap = callPackage ../development/libraries/haskell/snap/snap.nix{}  So, when we invoke nix-install haskellPackages.snap, Nix calls the expression located at in the ../development/libraries/haskell/snap/snap.nix file. Thus, to add a new packages to our repo, we need to 1. Write a nix expression file and put it in a logical spot in the nixpkgs repository. 2. Put a line in haskell-packages.nix we can use to call the expression file. ## A Nix Expression for a Cabal Package To add snap-web-routes to the hierarchy, we need to write a nix expression for it. What does a nix expression look like? Here’s the one for snap given in the nix file mentioned above. #!nix { cabal, aeson, attoparsec, cereal, clientsession, comonad , configurator, directoryTree, dlist, errors, filepath, hashable , heist, lens, logict, MonadCatchIOTransformers, mtl, mwcRandom , pwstoreFast, regexPosix, snapCore, snapServer, stm, syb, text , time, transformers, unorderedContainers, vector, vectorAlgorithms , xmlhtml }: cabal.mkDerivation (self: { pname = "snap"; version = "0.13.2.7"; sha256 = "1vw8c48rb1clahm1yw951si9dv9mk0gfldxvk3jd7rvsfzg97s4z"; isLibrary = true; isExecutable = true; buildDepends = [ aeson attoparsec cereal clientsession comonad configurator directoryTree dlist errors filepath hashable heist lens logict MonadCatchIOTransformers mtl mwcRandom pwstoreFast regexPosix snapCore snapServer stm syb text time transformers unorderedContainers vector vectorAlgorithms xmlhtml ]; jailbreak = true; patchPhase = '' sed -i -e 's|lens .*< 4.2|lens|' snap.cabal ''; meta = { homepage = "http://snapframework.com/"; description = "Top-level package for the Snap Web Framework"; license = self.stdenv.lib.licenses.bsd3; platforms = self.ghc.meta.platforms; }; })  Whoa, that’s a lot to take in. Let’s go through the main points. ### Dependencies List The big list at the top are the dependencies for the nix expression. When Nix runs this expression, it first ensure that all dependencies are available and placed on the path. Anything not in the dependencies list is removed from the path. If a necessary dependency is not specified in this list, Nix will refuse to run the expression. One thing to note about these dependencies: they look like Haskell package names, but technically they are nix expressions in the same namespace as the snap.nix expression. By convention, nix expressions for Hackage packages are named slightly differently. ### Cabal.mkDerivation The call to cabal.mkDerivation is a function call defined elsewhere in the expression hierarchy, and each item specified within the curly braces is a named input argument to the function. The important items are mostly self-explanatory, but a couple could use some elaboration: • sha256 – a hash of the source code used to build the package. Nix checks the hash for consistency before building the package. • jailbreak – strips out the dependency version bounds from the cabal file before building. ## Generating a Nix Expression with cabal2nix Specifying a nix expression like the one for snap from scratch would be a huge PITA. Thankfully, NixOS has a sweet utility function called cabal2nix that essentially handles everything for us. #!bash nix-install haskellPackages.cabal2nix  First, make sure your hackages list is up to date. #!bash cabal update  Next, call cabal2nix and specify the hackage package name. #!bash [dan@nixos:~/Code/nixpkgs]$ cabal2nix cabal://snap-web-routes
% Total    % Received % Xferd  Average Speed   Time    Time     Time  Current
0     0    0     0    0     0      0      0 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:--     0
0     0    0  7161    0     0  12992      0 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:-- 12992
path is ‘/nix/store/wyilc14fjal3mbhw0269qsr5r84c5iva-snap-web-routes-0.5.0.0.tar.gz’
{ cabal, heist, mtl, snap, snapCore, text, webRoutes, xmlhtml }:

cabal.mkDerivation (self: {
pname = "snap-web-routes";
version = "0.5.0.0";
sha256 = "1ml0b759k2n9bd2x4akz4dfyk8ywnpgrdlcymng4vhjxbzngnniv";
buildDepends = [ heist mtl snap snapCore text webRoutes xmlhtml ];
meta = {
homepage = "https://github.com/lukerandall/snap-web-routes";
description = "Type safe URLs for Snap";
platforms = self.ghc.meta.platforms;
};
})


Boom. We get a complete nix expression without doing any work. Now we just need to put it in the right spot in the hierarchy. The rest of the hackage packages are in pkgs/development/libraries/haskell, so we’ll follow suit.

#!bash
[dan@nixos:~/Code/nixpkgs]$mkdir pkgs/development/libraries/haskell/snap-web-routes [dan@nixos:~/Code/nixpkgs]$ cabal2nix cabal://snap-web-routes > pkgs/development/libraries/haskell/snap-web-routes/default.nix


Now we can check that our expression actually runs. The nix-install function we added isn’t smart enough to handle --dry-run, so we’ll use the nix-env command directly.

#!bash
[dan@nixos:~/Code/nixpkgs]$nix-env -iA haskellPackages.snapWebRoutes --dry-run installing haskell-snap-web-routes-ghc7.6.3-0.5.0.0' these derivations will be built: /nix/store/f42ybqmcmq44nr73l6ap90l5wnm3s4kq-haskell-snap-web-routes-ghc7.6.3-0.5.0.0.drv these paths will be fetched (21.88 MiB download, 416.87 MiB unpacked): /nix/store/0kw75f2qqx19vznsckw41wcp8zplwnl7-haskell-errors-ghc7.6.3-1.4.7 /nix/store/14rjz7iaa9a1q8mlg00pmdhwwn7ypd4x-haskell-distributive-ghc7.6.3-0.4.4 /nix/store/1jnipx1swkivg1ci0y7szdljklaj9cx1-haskell-skein-ghc7.6.3-1.0.9 ...  So snap-web-routes will be built, and all of its dependencies will be fetched from pre-built binaries. Sweet! If the dry-run looks good, you can run the command again without the --dry-run option or use nix-install like we have previously. I omit that call here. Note that this will install the package to your user environment. Remember: installing a package means making it active in the user environment. If you don’t want to install it, you can just build it with nix-build, which will put it in your store but it won’t be installed for the user. #!bash nix-build -A haskellPackages.snapWebRoutes  # Make the Pull Request Again, if you’re already adept at git and github, you can skip this section. We’re going to push our changes up to github and make a pull request. The process is largely automatic! Add the new .nix file to the git repo, commit the changes, and then push the branch to github. #!bash git add pkgs/development/libraries/haskell/snap-web-routes/default.nix git commit -a -m "Added snapWebRoutes to haskellPackages." git push origin add-haskell-snap-web-routes  Go to your github repo and you should see a prompt asking if you want to create a pull request; something like NixOS:master -> fluffynukeit:add-haskell-snap-web-routes. Follow the prompts and you’re done! That’s it for this installment! New installments to come if/when I encounter new problems to write about! # Setting Up Vim (for Haskell) This entry is part 4 of 6 in the series Setting Up Haskell Development on NixOS Linux from Scratch In this installment, we are going to set up vim for Haskell development. If you don’t want to use vim, you can skip this post entirely. On the other hand, if you do want to use vim or are at least curious about trying it out (like me), then keep reading. Chances are, if you do any kind of programming in a unix-like environment, you already know that vim is a text editor. Its proponents claim that proficiency in vim enables you to code faster than in any other editor. As for myself, my programming experience is mostly in IDEs, so I’m a veritable vim newbie. When I first started experimenting in vim not too long ago, I found the number of configuration options and plugins to be overwhelming. In fact, I’ve had to scrap several earlier version of this post as I found new combinations to try! So, this post will explore just one possible vim configuration for Haskell development, and to be honest it’s one with which I have limited experience so far. Still, I expect the baseline discussed here to be a good starting point for pretty much anybody. As time goes on, I will likely change my vim configuration to better suit my needs as I discover them. I plan to keep my vim configuration version controlled, so if you are curious about the latest version you can check it out. Also, this post is not a tutorial about how to use vim, but rather how to configure it for Haskell. If you want practice with basic vim controls, you might want to try out the free levels of vim-adventures. # General Vim Options Vim configuration is controlled through a the ~/.vimrc file. This file is processed when vim first starts up and allows the user to configure vim in a huge number of ways. Just wrapping your head around all the various options can be overwhelming. Configuring vim means building this vimrc file to our liking. ## Installing Vundle for Managing Plugins One of the things that makes vim a popular editor choice is huge number of plugins available to customize your text editing experience. Downloading plugins is easy, but to get vim to recognize your plugins, you have to mess with vim’s runtimepath variable. This can get pretty tedious, but thankfully there are plugin managers that will do the work for us. Vundle is one such declarative plugin manager, which fits with our NixOS theme. Installing Vundle is a breeze. First, execute the following command: #!bash git clone https://github.com/gmarik/Vundle.vim.git ~/.vim/bundle/Vundle.vim  This will make a bundle directory under which we will install our various plugins. We’re not done yet, though. We also need to add the following to the top of our .vimrc file to run Vundle at startup. The comments are mine and optional #!vim " ========= VUNDLE CONFIG =========== set nocompatible filetype off set rtp+=~/.vim/bundle/Vundle.vim call vundle#begin() Plugin 'gmarik/Vundle.vim' " LIST PLUGINS HERE " VUNDLE CLEANUP call vundle#end() filetype plugin indent on  Essentially, this code is declaring that the Vundle plugin will manage itself. One downside of Vundle, however, is that the plugins must have a github repository to be managed. If this is a problem for you, check out the alternative pathogen. ## Installing General Utility Plugins Next, we’ll install some utility plugins for vim, which will also demonstrate how to install plugins using Vundle generally. The plugins I’m choosing are vim-sensible, vim-unimpaired, and syntastic. Vim-sensible touts itself as being a standard set of defaults on which pretty much everyone can agree. Vim-unimpaired adds lots of key bindings to make tasks like navigating through compiler errors, for example, a lot easier. Syntastic runs syntax checkers and displays the errors in plain view. Simply add the following lines to the .vimrc file in the section I labeled LIST PLUGINS HERE. #!vim " LIST PLUGINS HERE Plugin 'tpope/vim-unimpaired' Plugin 'tpope/vim-sensible' Plugin 'scrooloose/syntastic' let g:syntastic_always_populate_loc_list=1 " A Haskell plugin we'll install later is 'dag/vim2hs', " but installing it now is fine, too.  Save the file, (re)load vim, and enter :PluginInstall. Vundle will set up the path to only use the plugins you’ve declared in .vimrc, kind of like NixOS does! Cool. A split screen should show up indicating the status of the selected plugins. If you ever want to add or remove plugins, just change the listed plugins in the .vimrc file and run :PluginInstall again. The line let g:syntastic_always_populate_loc_list=1 configures syntastic to put the errors in the vim locations list, which allows us to jump through the errors using the vim-unimpaired bindings of [L, ]L, [l, and ]l. ## Adding Custom Options Directly The above plugins do a good job of setting up some standard options, but everyone prefers their own twist on things. Mine is given below, which I put in my .vimrc file after the Vundle settings. Each setting is commented to explain what’s going on. #!vim " ========== GENERAL VIM SETTINGS ========== " Enable search highlighting set hlsearch " Enable line numbers set number " Use F11 to toggle between paste and nopaste set pastetoggle=<F11> " vim-sensible enables smarttab. Here, we configure the rest: " Set the display size of \t characters set tabstop=2 " When hitting , insert combination of \t and spaces for this width. " This combination is deleted as if it were 1 \t when using backspace. set softtabstop=2 " Set code-shifting width. Since smarttab is enabled, this is also the tab " insert size for the beginning of a line. set shiftwidth=2 " When inserting tab characters, use spaces instead set expandtab " Instead of failing command, present dialog if unsaved changes set confirm " Enable mouse in all modes set mouse=a " Map jk and kj to to exit insert mode. We need to use F11 to toggle to " paste mode before pasting any string with jk or kj, then switch back. When " inserting jk or kj manually, we will need to type the keys slowly so that " the key mapping times out. Using jk or kj to escape is easier than many " other alternatives. ino jk <Esc> ino kj <Esc> " Set a vertical line for long line width. This will give us a visual " indicator for cases in which line length is approaching 80 chars set colorcolumn=80 " Set the command section height to 2 lines. Useful if notices (like syntastic) are shown on command lines set cmdheight=2  # Customizations for Haskell Now we’ll add some new features for our vim installation specifically to work with Haskell. ## ghcmod Installing the syntastic plugin for syntax checking was only part of the story as syntastic only runs external syntax checkers and displays their results. So now we need a syntax checker. Enter ghcmod. #!bash nix-install haskellPackages.ghcMod  That’s it. Syntastic will recognize that ghcmod is installed and run it whenever a Haskell file is saved. To verify that it’s being recognized, open a Haskell file, type some Haskell code, then run :SyntasticInfo, which will show what checkers syntastic plans to use for the file. You can also run the checkers explicitly with :SyntasticCheck. ## vim2hs vim2hs is a vim plugin for Haskell syntax highlighting and linting, among other things. It seems more lightweight than the haskellmode-vim alternative plugin and was highly recommended in a reddit discussion about vim and Haskell. Let’s give it shot. #!vim Plugin 'dag/vim2hs'  Remember to re-run :PluginInstall within vim after updating .vimrc. That’s it for the basic vim setup. Changing the color scheme, customizing the display, and other items related more toward personal taste are left for you to explore! # Installing Essential Software In NixOS This entry is part 3 of 6 in the series Setting Up Haskell Development on NixOS Linux from Scratch Welcome to part 3 of my series on setting up NixOS for Haskell development! In this part, we’ll learn how to discover and install essential software for NixOS. We won’t cover the particulars of installing Haskell-related components (I’m saving that for a post on its own), but some of our decisions here will be motivated by the foresight that Haskell development is what we eventually want to do. As always, if you see an error, please let me know. I’m figuring this stuff out as I go. In the last post, we learned a bit about the Nix package manager. Let’s recap the essential points: • All software components in NixOS are installed using the Nix package manager. • Packages in Nix are defined using the nix language to create nix expressions. • Nix expressions define all inputs to a build process, including dependencies, which can themselves be nix expressions. • Nix will build all required dependencies if they do not already exist on your system. • Packages installed for all users are defined in the nix expression /etc/nixos/configuration.nix The rest of this post will focus on how to install packages into your user environment. These are the packages that are active on a per-user basis, so other users won’t necessarily have the same active packages as you do. # Finding and Installing Packages Packages are installed by running Nix expressions, so how do we find Nix expressions? There are actually a few different ways to get them. • Use the nix expressions that are included with your installation of NixOS, which are part of a nix channel. A nix channel allows you to easily download updated expressions as well as pre-compiled binaries. • Download a set of nix expressions from the internet. • Subscribe to a new nix channel to download more up-to-date software packages than are available in the default channel. Let’s explore each one of these in turn. Spoiler alert: we’ll use 1) early on but most of our time will be spent with 2). I’ll touch on 3), but honestly it’s not something I recommend if you’re doing Haskell development because I don’t think it offers much, if anything, over option 2). ## Expressions Available through NixOS Installation Your NixOS installation comes with a set of packages that are included by default. These are installed in /nix/var/nix/profiles/per-user/root/channels/nixos, but NixOS is kind enough to give you a shortcut via ~/.nix-defexpr/channels_root/nixos. This is the default location from which nix expressions are run. It also happens to be a nix channel, but I’ll discuss nix channels later. The key point is that NixOS comes with oodles of expressions built-in and ready to be run. In fact, let’s run one right now in preparation for later steps. We’ll install git. All of the manipulations of the user environment are invoked using the nix-env command. For example, if we want to see a list of all available packages from the built-in expressions #!bash nix-env -qaP --description *  Here, q means query, a means available packages, and P means show the attribute path, which is essentially a way to specify a particular expression instead of using the software package name. The description option includes the description of the packages, as well. In the case of git, we’ll see this among the long list of available packages: #!bash nixos.pkgs.gitAndTools.gitFull git-1.9.4 Git, a popular distributed version control system  The software is named git-1.9.4, but the attribute path specifying the nix expression used to build it is nixos.pkgs.gitAndTools.gitFull. We can use either the package name or the attribute path to install git, but the attribute path is the recommended strategy since it removes all ambiguity about which package should be installed and how. So let’s install git using the following command: #!bash nix-env -iA nixos.pkgs.gitAndTools.gitFull  Nix will then download all dependencies that you don’t already have (which, since this is our first installation, is all of them) and install git. Here the flag i means install and A means by attribute path (yes, it bothers me that query commands use -P and install commands use -A). We can verify the installation worked successfully by querying the list of installed packages in the user environment. #!bash nix-env -q --installed  The command above should list git as being an installed package. ## Installing from Downloaded Expressions Another approach to getting expressions is to download a collection of them from the internet. The most popular collection is the nixpkgs repository on github. In fact, the nix expressions that are bundled with NixOS (and which we explored above) are simply a stable version of this nixpkgs repository. While the nixpkgs repository has a lot of available Haskell packages already, I quickly ran into ones that I needed but weren’t included. Properly installing these packages requires adding new nix expressions to the available set. This is why I recommend running downloaded nix expressions as the default method of installation for Haskell developers; most likely, you’ll be adding and running your own expressions anyway, and you can pull in updates with git just as easily as you can using nix channels. Since Nix is declarative, our expressions will be useful for everyone else, too, so why not contribute them back to nixpkgs? For this, we’ll need to fork the nixpkgs repository and then clone our fork to our local machine. Any updates made locally can be made on a branch, pushed back to github, and then pulled into the main nixpkgs repository. FYI: when I cloned the repository, it was about 125 MB in size. After you fork and clone the repo locally, cd to its root. We’re going to run pretty much the same nix-env command we did before, except now we use the -f flag to read the nix expressions from the directory. Personally, I’m trying to get good at vim, so I’ll be querying for it with the following: #!bash nix-env -f . -qaP --description vim vim vim-7.4.316 The most popular clone of the VI editor  Pretty easy. In this case, I got lucky and was able to guess the package name “vim” correctly, but in general there are better ways to search, as we’ll find later. Installation is also an analogous command. #!bash nix-env -f . -iA vim  We’ll investigate how to update this local nixpkgs repository with our own additions in a future post. ## Subscribing to a New Channel The third option for getting expressions is to subscribe to a new channel. I say new channel because all NixOS installations are automatically subscribed to the channel associated with the released OS version. For instance, I can inspect the default channel’s manifest and see that it’s for NixOS version 14.04. #!bash cat ~/.nix-defexpr/channels_root/manifest.nix [ { meta = { }; name = "nixos-14.04.312.b84584f"; .......  Ok, but what is a channel? A channel is a set of nix expressions combined with a manifest file. The manifest file describes what binaries are available for downloading instead of building from scratch, so they can save you a lot of time if you are doing many installations. You can pull in new updates from a channel using the nix-channel --update command. The default channel is not really sufficient for development purposes because we want to add and run our own nix expressions. As such, I’m glossing over channels in favor of pulling updates in from the git repository directly. I admit I’m not the most knowledgeable about channels, so if there some best practices out there to make working with them easier, please let me know. # Enhancing the Nix Experience We have seen how to query and install packages using Nix, but there are some small customizations we can make to make our development lives a bit easier. Instead of using nix-env and specifying our standard set of flags again and again, we can write some custom bash commands to do most of the typing for us. One problem: how can we search for packages by keyword? The nix-env command takes a package name as an input, not a general keyword. Thankfully, we have grep, which can search through the large list of available packages and find keywords and regular expressions for us. The code below defines a new bash command nix-search that will search through all the expressions in our git repository looking for matches of a particular keyword or regular expression. Searching for the right expression to install will be much easier. #!bash nix-search(){ echo "Searching..."; nix-env -f ~/Code/nixpkgs -qaP --description \* | grep -i "$1"; }


All this hard-coding of -f ~/Code/nixpkgs is a problem waiting to happen, though. A better way is to use the .nix-defexpr folder to simply change the default location that Nix searches for expressions. In doing so, we won’t even need the -f flag anymore.

One thing I’d like is to have .nix-defexpr be a link itself to my ~/Code/nixpkgs directory. Otherwise, my attribute paths will need some kind of prefix, and since I only want to use expressions under ~/Code/nixpkgs, using this unnecessary prefix will get a little annoying. Normally, we could simply make .nix-defexpr a link to the right directory, but it turns out that if .nix-defexpr is a link, it is deleted when you log in and replaced with the Nix default. So, as a work around, I’m adding code to my .bashrc file to set up .nix-defexpr the way I want when I open the terminal.

We also should change the NIX_PATH environment variable similarly to what I have done below.

#!bash
# In ~/.bashrc
rm -r ~/.nix-defexpr
ln -s /home/dan/Code/nixpkgs ~/.nix-defexpr

# Then export the right env variables:
export NIX_PATH=/home/dan/Code:nixos-config=/etc/nixos/configuration.nix;
nix-search(){ echo "Searching..."; nix-env -qaP --description \* | grep -i "$1"; }  We can make installing easier too by writing a new command to run expressions from our git repo, specified by attribute path. #!bash nix-install(){ nix-env -iA$1; }


The first version of this post used the -f flag exclusively because I didn’t yet know about NIX_PATH and .nix-defexpr. Having a nix-install helper function makes more sense when the -f flag was being used, but in its current form it doesn’t save any keystrokes. The user may use her discretion when deciding whether or not to use nix-install.

Put both functions into the .bashrc file in your home directory, then use source ~/.bashrc to reload the .bashrc file for the updates to take effect.  We can use the new commands like this (might need to scroll right!):

#!bash
[dan@nixos:~]$nix-search vim Searching... bvi bvi-1.3.2 Hex editor with vim style keybindings qvim qvim-7.4 The most popular clone of the VI editor (Qt GUI fork) vim vim-7.4.316 The most popular clone of the VI editor vimWrapper vim-with-vimrc-7.4.316 The most popular clone of the VI editor vimb vimb-2.4 A Vim-like browser vimbWrapper vimb-with-plugins-2.4 A Vim-like browser (with plugins: ) vimprobable2 vimprobable2-1.4.2 Vimprobable is a web browser that behaves like the Vimperator plugin available for Mozilla Firefox vimprobable2Wrapper vimprobable2-with-plugins-1.4.2 Vimprobable is a web browser that behaves like the Vimperator plugin available for Mozilla Firefox (with plugins: ) vimNox vim_configurable-7.4.316 The most popular clone of the VI editor vimHugeX vim_configurable-7.4.316 The most popular clone of the VI editor vimHugeXWrapper vim_configurable-with-vimrc-7.4.316 The most popular clone of the VI editor [dan@nixos:~]$ nix-install vim
replacing old vim-7.4.316'
installing vim-7.4.316'


### An Aside About Nix Search Paths

I have had to update this post a few times as I learn more about how Nix search paths work. I have tried to keep everything mentioned here correct and consistent, but having everything clearly spelled out is valuable. Here’s my most up-to-date knowledge:

• By default, the nix-env command searches the expressions contained in the ~/.nix-defexpr directory. This directory can have subfolders or symbolic links to any other directories, and Nix will prepend any attributes with the symbolic link name. For instance, if .nix-defexpr contained a link dans_nixpkgs -> ~/Code/nixpkgs, then searches using nix-env will show attributes as dans_nixpkgs.haskellPackages.snap, for instance.
• By making .nix-defexpr a symbolic link itself, you can eliminate the prefixes, but .nix-defexpr will be reset back to the default the next time you boot the machine. As a work around, I have placed code in my .bashrc file to set it up the way I want each time a terminal is opened.
• The .nix-defexpr default location is what is overridden when using the -f flag.
• The NIX_PATH environment variable is used when resolving <brackets> in nix expressions. For example, NIX_PATH=/home/dan/Code will lead to <nixpkgs> resolving to /home/dan/Code/nixpkgs. It has no effect on the nix-env command itself.
• nixos-config must point to the configuration.nix file or else nixos-rebuild calls will fail.

# Installing Haskell Platform and GHC

We can use our new bash commands to start installing our required Haskell packages.  In the past, I have tried to avoid Haskell Platform because, invariably, I would need a different version of one of the packages it offers or I would need a package that isn’t included.  Unfortunately, following either of these scenarios has sometimes required that I re-install all my packages from scratch to resolve odd dependency conflicts. But, this is NixOS, and the claim is that NixOS is designed to prevent that kind of baloney from happening.  Only time and experience will tell if that’s true, but in the meantime we’ll barge right ahead and get Haskell Platform since it is often suggested as the best way to get started with Haskell.

#!bash
[dan@nixos:~]$nix-search "haskell platform" Searching... &lt;omitted&gt; haskellPlatform haskell-platform-2013.2.0.0 Haskell Platform meta package [dan@nixos:~]$ nix-install haskellPlatform


After installation is complete, we will have Haskell Platform 2013.2.0.0 installed, which used ghc 7.6.3 to build.   However, we did not yet install ghc because NixOS only puts packages we install on the path, not their dependencies. Installing ghc is now a fast operation because all NixOS is doing is adding the existing executable to the path. At the same time, let’s install cabal.

#!bash


I have received reports from some users that haskellPackages.ghc doesn’t work for them, but haskellPlatform.ghc does, so give that a try if the above doesn’t work for you.

That’s it for this installment.  Check back soon for the next *exciting *post in this series, although I’m not yet sure what it will be.

# Installing NixOS

This entry is part 2 of 6 in the series Setting Up Haskell Development on NixOS Linux from Scratch

In the last post of this series, we set up a VM to run NixOS using VirtualBox.  Now we actually need to go ahead and install NixOS.  We’ll be installing it into our VM, but if you are installing it into an actual machine, most of the instructions here will work for you.

This post is based on this article on the NixOS wiki, but there are some differences because I chose to configure NixOS differently.

# Installing NixOS

1. Go to the NixOS download page and download a release of NixOS.  At the time of this writing, the newest release is 14.04, and I chose the Graphical Live CD, 64-bit Intel/AMD version, which is recommended for most users.
2. Open up the VirtualBox VM Manager and select your NixOS VM.  Then choose Settings > Storage.  Click the CD icon in the storage tree.  Then, on the right side under Attributes, click the CD icon to choose a virtual CD/DVD file.  Select the nixos ISO file you downloaded in step 1.
3. Click OK, then start.  You should see the following menu.  Choose the first option, NixOS installer.  It is chosen for you automatically after about 10 seconds.
4. After the NixOS installer boots up, you’ll be at a terminal login prompt that tells you to login as root.  Enter root for your login name and hit enter.
5. So far, we haven’t actually installed anything.  Before we can do that, we need to initialize the file system on our virtual machine so it can read and write files to our virtual disk we set up in the previous post.  The first thing to do is create a partition on our virtual disk.  Type
fdisk /dev/sda

to run the disk partitioning program, which has a simple but completely non-intuitive interface.  The commands I entered, in order, are n (for new partition), p (for primary partition), 1 (assign partition number 1), no selection (defaults to 2048 for start of partition), and no selection (again, default).  Finally, I enter w to write the partition to disk.  See below.

6. Next, we need to make a file system onto our new partition.  Enter
mkfs.ext4 -j -L nixos /dev/sda1

This command will make a new file system with the ext4 format into partition 1 of sda, enable journaling, and give our new filesystem the label nixos.

7. Now that we created the filesystem, we need to mount it.  Mounting it is like connecting different filesystems together, but in this case we need to connect our filesystem to the OS.  Mount the filesystem with
mount LABEL=nixos /mnt

That’s the last step in setting up the disk and file system.  Next, we’ll configure NixOS itself.

# Configuring NixOS

If you just want to get NixOS set up as fast as possible, skip to the instructions below.  Before I get to that, however, I’ll briefly describe the Nix philosophy and implementation from a few different levels.  These are just my impressions and understanding from using NixOS for a few days, but I have found this information to be crucial in order to do anything useful.

NixOS is a Linux distribution built around the Nix package manager, which is available for installation on other OSes if you want, but is the only package manager for NixOS.  Every piece of software installed on the entire system is installed through Nix.

So what makes Nix useful?  In most other package managers, new versions of software replace older versions.  If some component of the system depends on that software but is incompatible with the new version, then it will break after the upgrade.  Extend this problem to the huge graph of intermingling dependencies among all the software on a user’s computer and you get what’s called dependency hell.  Other Linux distributions try to prevent dependency hell by keeping official lists of software packages that are expected to be compatible, installing packages from this list, and occasionally updating the list with new versions.

Nix, on the other hand, installs new version of software side-by-side with their older versions, and older versions are deleted only when they are no longer required.  Nix achieves this through a combination of two mechanisms: a sophisticated system of sym links that keeps track of which version of packages are “active” at any time and a build system that exhaustively describes every input into each individual package.

The second part is the part we need to understand for our next steps.  Installing new software requires writing a Nix expression that completely describes all the prerequisites and dependencies for the software to be installed.  These dependencies can themselves be Nix expressions defined elsewhere.  When we install new packages, what we are doing is running a Nix expression for that package.  Nix first recursively ensures all build dependencies are available, either by checking that they are already built or by running Nix expressions to build them.  Then, it builds and installs our new package.

This is exactly the process we’ll use to install NixOS itself.

1. First, we need an expression that will define the components we want to build and install.  We can make one and configure it using
nixos-generate-config --root /mnt
nano /mnt/etc/nixos/configuration.nix

This will open the configuration.nix expression in the nano editor.

2. The configuration looks something like the one below.  Use the arrow keys to navigate through the file.  Lines marked with a # are comments, and several important configuration lines are commented out by default.  Use nano to move the cursor around and delete the # to enable the features you want.  In the picture, I have deleted the #s for boot.loader.grub, networking.hostName, and networking.wireless.enable.  I also uncommented all the lines that begin with services.xserver to enable a GUI.  I also uncommented the lines at the bottom of the file that add a new user and modified them as shown.  When you are done, use Ctrl-O to save the changes and Ctrl-X to exit.
3. With the configuration.nix nix expression defined, we are ready to install NixOS! Run
nixos-install

to start the installation.  If there is a problem with the filesystem and the installation refuses to start, you can redo the steps starting with the fdisk step, but use d (for delete) as the first command to delete the primary partition and start fresh.

4. After installation completes, shut down the virtual machine, and in the VirtualBox Manager go to Settings > Storage, click on the CD on the right hand side and choose “Remove disc from virtual drive.”  This removes the NixOS installer from the boot menu so we don’t boot into it by default.  Then start the VM again.
5. When the VM boots up, you should see a graphical login window.  We can’t log in yet because we need to change some passwords first.  To do this, we need to use the command line again.  Access the console login using the Power drop down menu.
6. Log in as root, which still has no password.  We will change that right now with
passwd

Enter a new root password for your system.  If you created any users, you can set their passwords also with, for example,

passwd dan
7. reboot one final time and verify you can log in successfully.

That’s it! whew Next in the series, we’ll tackle how to install essential software.

# Installing VirtualBox (for NixOS)

This entry is part 1 of 6 in the series Setting Up Haskell Development on NixOS Linux from Scratch

Welcome to the first installment of my series about setting up Haskell development on NixOS Linux from scratch!

I consider myself somewhere in the beginning-intermediate stages of Haskell skill, having created a useful application for Windows as learning exercise.  However, to really take my Haskell skill to the next level, I needed to migrate to the de facto standard Haskell environment – Linux.  Ollie Charles, a Haskell reddit member who writes the wonderful 24 Days of Hackage tutorial series on his site, has adopted NixOS as his Linux distro of choice and wrote a blog post describing how to get started.  I decided to trust his choice and try it out for myself.

As I dove deeper into the rabbit hole of getting my environment set up properly, I found myself getting frustrated with having to search all over the net for tutorials, walkthroughs, and installation help just to get everything set up.  Indeed, Ollie’s post does a good job giving the flavor of Haskell development on NixOS, but it’s not comprehensive enough to provide the whole story.  The goal of this series is to provide that whole story as I discover it myself.  If something in these posts is unclear or flat out wrong, please let me know!

Ok, with the introduction out of the way, let’s jump right in.

# Installing VirtualBox

VirtualBox is a free program from Oracle that allows you to run a virtual machine on a host computer.  In this case, we’ll use a virtual machine to run NixOS and host the VM on Windows.

1. Download VirtualBox installer from here.  At the time of this writing, the latest version is 4.3.12.  Since we are hosting the VM on a Windows computer, we want VirtualBox 4.3.12 for Windows hosts.
2. Run the installer.  You’ll see something like the screen below.  I accepted all the defaults except I don’t like shortcuts on my desktop, so I disabled that (on the next screen).  Also, I got a warning that I would be temporarily disconnected from my network as part of the installation process.
3. Wait for installation to complete.  If you are prompted to install devices, go ahead and install them.  Installation took 10-20 seconds for me.

## Create a virtual machine to run NixOS

Now that we have VirtualBox installed, we need to create a virtual machine that will run our NixOS distribution.

1. Start your newly installed VirtualBox software.  When you start it up, you’ll be at the VirtualBox Manager window.  From this window, you can create and manage multiple virtual machines that all run inside the host computer.  We only need to create one, though.  Click the blue New button.
2. Now we’re at the Create Virtual Machine Wizard, which looks something like the window below.  Your selections will be similar to mine but might need to be different based on your computer architecture.  I have a 64 bit machine, so I chose Other Linux (64-bit).  You can also use whatever Name you like.  I happen to know I will be using NixOS 14.04.
3. Next you will choose the amount of RAM for the VM.  This is the amount of RAM your VM reserves for its own use while you are running it.  My machine has 8 GB total, so I allocated 4 GB (4096 MB) to my VM because I never plan to run it at the same time as another RAM-hungry process.
4. At the next screen, you are prompted to create a virtual hard drive.  Choose to create a new drive now and choose the VDI format on the next screen.  After that, choose “Dynamically Allocated,” which allows your VM to take up hard drive space as it needs it instead of reserving it all up front.  Lastly, choose the size of your new virtual drive.  The default setting for me is 8 GB, which sounds sufficient for small development box.  Besides, if we run low on space, we can increase the size later.
5. After that, your VM is created!  You can now click on the orange Settings gear to explore different ways to configure your VM.  I plan to run with the defaults until I decide I need more processing power or otherwise need to change the settings. The only thing I changed was under General ? Advanced where I changed Shared Clipboard and Drag’n’Drop to both be bidirectional.

And that’s it! Don’t bother starting the VM yet, though.  There’s no point until we install the NixOS operating system onto it.  We’ll cover that in Part 2.

# Reflections After a Hard Day in Haskell GUI Land

My progress on my current project (FNIStash) is unsteady, but yesterday I decided the time was right to start putting together a rudimentary GUI as both a learning exercise and as a boost of motivation for moving the program along.  After working on getting a basic toy GUI for an entire day, I have absolutely nothing to show for it.  It was truly the most disheartening and disappointing interaction with the Haskell ecosystem that I have had so far.  Here are some of my impressions.

## As a Windows User

Trying to navigate the Haskell ecosystem as a Win 7 user is like making a deposit at a bank in loose change.  Some banks will accommodate you and others will turn you away, but in either case you’ll get the feeling that the way you are doing things is fundamentally looked down upon.  In cases where you are accommodated, you usually have to jump through many hoops, such as installing specialized build environments like MINGW32 or cygwin (which themselves might require several different installers) and manually building cross-platform libraries.  After a lot of work, you’ll find you’re ready to install the package you wanted to install all along, only to have it break for who-knows-why.  A lot of libraries are just not as easy as “cabal install haskell-gui-support”

## Cabal

Cabal is a frustratingly constraining tool.  Far too frequently I encountered packages that, when trying to install, would say installing this package will break a dozen others.  If not that, then I often would be notified that the dependencies could not be resolved.  If you decide that you don’t care that your other packages break and go ahead with the install, it’s a tossup as to whether or not the install will be successful, but oops, you just broke a dozen of your old packages already, so if it fails you have some cleaning up to do.  I’ve become pretty skilled at clearing out my cabal and ghc databases and invoking cabal install world to just bring my packages back to a self-consistent state after trying and failing to install a new package to explore.

For packages that leverage a cross platform library, this is frustraing but understandable.  Often this house of cards is built by taking C or C++ source meant for a Unix like build environment, installing it through MINGw32 (as the special Windows installation instructions tell you to do), then installing a package from cabal that brings in the Haskell wrappers.  It’s not pretty, but it’s kind of expected when pulling in functionality across platforms and across languages.

What I don’t understand is why cabal should ever have a problem with some packages breaking others or dependencies not being resolved.  Cabal knows what package I want to install, it knows what versions of its dependencies it needs, and those dependencies are freely available from hackage (as are their own dependencies).  You would think that this is a simple scenario with a straight forward solution – recurse and build all versions of everything as needed.  But for some reason, cabal does not allow side-by-side installation of different versions of packages.  If you have a package that requires a specific version of a dependency, you are effectively prevented from using any package that requires a different version.  The utility cabal-dev is available, which allows the set of packages to be sandboxed on a per project basis, but that is small consolation if you (like me) need to get out of hell on a single project.

Side-by-side installation of multiple versions is a known and demonstrated solution to dependency hell.  I alternate between blaming the community for not solving this problem and blaming myself for not understanding why it is so difficult.  Solutions like Haskell Platform seem to me to be treating the symptom and not the disease.

The Haskell community is widely regarded as newb-friendly.  If you need newb help, the haskell IRC channel is just a click away, and in cases where I didn’t get help from the IRC channel or haskell cafe, I’ve simply selected a knowledgable member of the Haskell subreddit and messaged them directly.  No one has ever called me a newb or made me feel dumb for asking questions, even when the answer was staring me in the face in the docs and I just didn’t notice.  It’s a great community.

What has happened (albeit occasionally) is that I might get no response at all, and as my questions become more advanced and specific, the likelihood that my queries get lost in the void increases.  This is no different from any other language community.  However, the Haskell community is tiny compared to, say, Python, so it’s pretty easy to exhaust all avenues of help.  If you’re in the Haskell Windows community, it’s even smaller.

## Desperation in Finding a GUI Package

In my search to find a viable GUI package, the only one that I had absolutely any success with was HGamer3d, and it’s probably not a coincidence that it is designed to work on Windows.  It was the only package that I was able to install successfully (without any headaches either), and it also had several example sources that worked effortlessly.  The problem is that is has next to nothing for documentation.  I tried modifying an example slightly only to have the executable fail on startup for unknown reasons.  Maybe I will revisit it in the near future, but I would prefer to not have to learn Ogre to decipher the HGamer3d source code.

What I wanted at the start of all of this was a GUI library or framework that supported DDS texture files.  By the end, I was willing to settle for anything that would successfully install and would display an image in any format.  So why not the web frameworks?  Yesod can’t resolve dependencies, happstack fails to load the network package (for which I found a work around online that, alas, doesn’t work), and snap fails to build the lens package due to a segfault in the generated code.  I’m sure any of these would work if I had the “right” set of packages installed, but this is not a viable solution (see above).  I can’t rip my environment apart every time I need something new.

wxHaskell is the most popular GUI toolset based on this reddit discussion, but I forgot to sacrifice a goat as step 0 of the installation process, so I had very little success with it.

## Now

I feel pretty similar to the author of this reddit discussion, except I had even less success.  GLUT, GLFW, elm, reactive this, FRP that.  I feel as if I have looked at everything and found success in nothing.  Others work in Haskell GUIs all the time, so I know it is possible and that part of the blame lies on my side of the screen.

This experience has been a completely different kind of difficulty compared to learning the Haskell language.  List comprehension, immutable variables, monads, type classes…these are all well documented concepts with essentially no variability from case to case.  Read up long enough and eventually they click, and you are on your way.  The problem I face now is that I don’t know where to go from here.

# Installing Leksah on Windows 7

This past weekend, I convinced myself to give Leksah, the Haskell IDE written in Haskell, a try.  I’m glad I did.  Writing Haskell in it is much more enjoyable than using Notepad++ and WinGHCi side by side.  So much more enjoyable that I actually managed to sit down and write something useful!

Installing Leksah on Windows is not hard, but it is easy to mess up, as I found out.  Here is what I hope is a step-by-step guide to doing it on Windows 7.  Note that this walkthrough assumes you already have GHC installed, probably by installing the Haskell Platform.

1. Determine your ghc version by typing “ghc –version” at a command prompt.  In my case, it was 7.0.4.
2. Download the Leksah binary installer that matches your ghc version.  Matching of versions is not optional!
3. Run the installer and accept the default installation location.  Mine was C:\Program Files (x86)\Leksah\
4. Start up Leksah (you can search for it in the Start menu).  When you first start up Leksah, you will be asked to provide the path to your cabal packages.  This is so Leksah can process your packages into an explorable database.
5. Add the packages path into the text field, then click the Add button.  You should see the path listed in the path list as confirmation of your selection.  My path was C:\Users\MyUserName\AppData\Roaming\cabal\packages.  Then click OK.
6. Leksah will process your installed packages.  This takes a few minutes.  If it looks like Leksah performed this processing really quickly/nearly instantly, then double-check that your Leksah installer matches your ghc version.  (This was my problem for quite a while.)
7. Leksah saves your package data in a .leksah folder in the top level of your user directory.  If you delete this folder, Leksah will revert its behavior as if it were freshly installed.  This is useful if the guide above doesn’t work for you and you need to debug some stuff but don’t want to endlessly uninstall then reinstall.

And that’s it!  If you need help on using Leksah, try this series of youtube videos.

# Problems with Matlab parfor data disappearing

I work a lot in Matlab at work, and Matlab’s object-oriented capabilities in particular.  I encountered a problem that took me a couple hours to debug, and hopefully I can help someone else avoid the experience.

I had my code set up to use a regular for loop when processing serially and a parfor loop when processing with a Matlab pool.  The code worked fine in the serial case, but when using parfor, some of my objects’ properties seemed to be vanishing into empty matrices.  Very literally, one line before the parfor, the object had correctly populated data, and one line within the parfor that data was gone.  No errors from Matlab except errors later on down the road caused from the property being empty.  No indication of what was going on.  No luck finding solutions online.

If you find this happening, the problem is likely with the saving and loading of your object.  Matlab communicates data to each matlab pool worker by serializing the objects, which essentially means saving them in the client thread and having each worker load it back up.  If your object doesn’t save and load correctly, then it won’t get into the parfor loop correctly.

To test the saving and loading, construct an object of the class that’s giving you problems, save it, clear your workspace, then load it.  Inspect the object for missing or incorrect properties.  If you see a problem with a property, check to see if it has a custom set method defined, comment it out, save the updates (and remember to clear classes), and try again.  You should see the data is no longer corrupted.

So what’s happening here?  When Matlab loads objects (either from a mat file or through serialization), it invokes the set method for all properties being loaded.  If an error occurs in a set method during this process, Matlab gives up on setting that property, provides no notice that an error occurred, and just leaves it as the default specified for that property.  Unless your properties block in the classdef says otherwise, the default value for the property will be an empty matrix.

(I have also had problems with handle objects getting into and out of parfor loops, but that wasn’t the problem here.)

In my case, the error I was getting was due to a self-consistency check in my set method.  Before setting the property A, I check to make sure that it is consistent with some other property B.  However, property A was being loaded before property B, so the consistency check always failed on load.  I worked around this by checking to make sure property B was non-empty before doing the consistency check.  This didn’t pose any problems for my class because in normal usage, my property B must always be defined before property A.  Unfortunately, this wasn’t the case when loading or serializing.

#### An Aside on Set Methods and Loading

In my experience with Matlab OOP, the automatic invoking of set methods on load or serialization has been a significant headache.  As far as I know, the main reason for doing this is so the class version can be checked, and the loaded property modified if necessary to maintain backwards compatibility.  In my experience, I use set methods almost exclusively for type checking and consistency checks on inputs, so any object that doesn’t throw an error has an allowable state, is saved in that allowable state, and should be loaded in that allowable state.  Checking the state again when loading by invoking the set methods is not needed for my uses, and has caused me headaches such as the one outlined above on more than one occasion.

Admittedly, Matlab’s mlint says that you shouldn’t reference one property from another property’s set method.  While I usually follow mlint’s suggestions, this is one I ignore outright as it significantly reduces the utility of set methods in my opinion.  Having users set properties in a natural way, and having the set methods automatically check the correctness of those properties, is by far the best use of set methods I can think of.  If anyone knows of a better way to achieve the same functionality, or a better reason to use set methods, I would love to hear it and learn more.

# Component Architectures vs Class Hierarchies

After putting Sprite Clipper into a holding pattern, I started looking for a new nerd hobby.  I figured I would naturally progress into using slick2d, the Java game architecture that first set me off to make SC.  I didn’t have much of an idea of what kind of game I wanted to make, so I thought I would investigate different architectures to get some inspiration.

That’s when I ran across component video game architectures, which totally eschew object-oriented programming concepts.  This was completely new to me.  The gospel of OOP had been preached to me in nearly every context I came across it.  But, after reading some articles about the component paradigm, I began to see the drawbacks of class hierarchies.

The main goal of component architectures is to reduce coupling between various parts of the program as much as possible.  Let’s say you have an extensive class hierarchy, but you want to add a new feature to only certain classes in the inheritance tree (call them classes C) but not in some other classes (call them classes NC).  If the youngest common ancestor of all classes of C (call it superclass S) is also an ancestor of any class in NC, then you’re kind of SOL if you want to use inheritance.  You can’t give superclass S the new feature without also giving it to some class in NC.  Essentially, the class hierarchy couples different classes together, reducing your ability to selectively update parts of the tree in a robust manner. (I say robust because you could always just copy and paste the feature into each class in C, but the CompSci gods would strike you down for your heresy.)

In component architectures, inheritance is avoided.  In fact, most classes are avoided altogether.  Instead, all objects are simply containers of components, which are self-contained contained behaviors.  Want an object to respond to user input?  Add a UserInput component to the object.  Want an object to be destructable?  Add the Destructable component.  Using components, the object can be completely customized without affecting other classes or other objects.

Since component architectures are used to manage the behavior of  individual objects, they present a different problem from class hierarchies – how do you manage all the objects in your program?  Well, one strategy is to define a scripting language that will emulate inheritance, kind of like the one described in this Powerpoint presentation.  The presentation gives a good overview of the advantages and disadvantages of component architectures, and was probably the most useful resource I came across while investigating this topic.

So are component architectures next on my list of things to try out?  Probably not, actually.  I came across another intriguing new concept – functional languages – that I think I’ll explore first.  Functional languages are even stranger to me than component architectures, and I’m just a sucker for a new experience.